How To Care For A Pigeon?

Pigeons are fascinating birds that have been companions to humans for centuries. Whether you are caring for a racing pigeon or a pet bird, proper care is essential for their well-being. In this article, we will cover everything you need to know about how to care for a pigeon, from providing clean water to a nutritious diet and suitable living conditions. Read on to learn more about how to keep your pigeon healthy and happy.

To Care For A Pigeon, you should follow these Instructions:

  1. Basic pigeon care.
  2. Pet pigeon housing.
  3. Ideal temperature and humidity for pigeons.
  4. Caring for pet pigeon hygiene.
  5. Pet pigeon feeding and diet.
  6. Forbidden foods for pigeons.
  7. Physical and mental stimulation for pet pigeons.
How To Care For A Pigeon

How To Take Care of Pigeon’s Health?

It’s essential to ensure that pigeons receive the proper care and nutrition to stay healthy, whether they’re wild or domesticated. However, despite taking needed precautions to keep them healthy, sickness can occur. If you notice any symptoms, quickly isolate the bird from others to prevent further contamination and further spreading of illness.

Remember to keep the bird’s environment clean, which may include taking precautions to prevent other birds from entering the same cage as your birds and frequently cleaning the coop or cage. You must not use plain water while cleaning the cage or coop. Instead, add disinfectants to the water while scrubbing to avoid bacterial diseases in the bird.

Ensure that your pigeon’s cage or coop is spacious enough and provides ample air supply. Pigeons require a decent amount of fresh air to keep them active and healthy. Besides, these birds do not prefer damp conditions; hence, it’s crucial to keep their environment dry and appropriately aerated at all times.

1. Basic pigeon care:

As with any pet, keeping a pigeon in good health means meeting its basic care needs. These include proper environment, feeding, hygiene, stimulation, and preventative medicine.

The environment in which your pet pigeon lives is critical to its well-being. You should provide a spacious and comfortable living place with access to direct sunlight, but ensure it is not too hot. For a single pigeon, a suitable outdoor coop with a safe space for nesting is ideal. For indoor pigeons, a birdcage or cardboard box with adequate space is also acceptable. Make sure to avoid contact with wild animals or other birds that may transmit diseases to your pet.

Nutritious food is essential to maintain good pigeon health. The diet should include a balance of seeds, grains, and fresh vegetables. Try to avoid seed-only diets, which may lead to malnutrition and calcium deficiency. You should provide fresh and clean water in a container that is easily accessible. Avoid dirty water which can lead to bacterial infections and opt for a healthy pigeon milk recipe or commercial baby bird formula to supplement their diet.

Proper hygiene is vital to prevent diseases and promote a healthy environment. Maintaining a clean and well-aired living space is fundamental to good pigeon care. Pigeon pants can help avoid the spread of diseases and make cleaning easier. Clean the coop or cage regularly, and use disinfectants while cleaning to avoid bacterial infections.

Stimulation is essential to keep your pet pigeon happy and prevent boredom. Pigeons are social birds and need adequate interaction to stay healthy. You can stimulate them by playing with sounds or leaving a television on, providing toys, or other things to fly around and explore.

2. Pet pigeon housing:

Creating a comfortable and conducive living environment is crucial when caring for a pet pigeon. It is advisable to properly prepare the space they will inhabit before acquiring one.

To ensure that your pet pigeon is comfortable, it is recommended to have an appropriate cage or loft that is suitable for the size of the breed you have chosen. While pigeons enjoy being loose and free, they must have a place to take refuge, rest, and sleep.

When choosing a cage, it is best to avoid overpopulating the space to prevent coexistence issues. A good rule of thumb is to keep only 2-5 birds together in each cage. However, it is essential to keep pigeons in pairs or groups.

To maintain a hygienic environment, line the bottom of the cage with clean newspaper sheets or absorbent paper. A layer of sand or safe items like cat litter can also be used. Pigeons tend to use twigs, light stones, coconut hair, or straw to build their nest, so consider leaving those elements in the cage.

There should be an appropriate food dish and water source in each cage according to the size and morphology of the pigeons. Stainless steel feeders are recommended as they are reliable and easy to clean and disinfect. Dripper water bottles are also ideal and will keep water fresh for longer without becoming contaminated or warm too quickly.

All in all, providing appropriate pet pigeon housing is crucial in ensuring they are comfortable and happy.

3. Ideal temperature and humidity for pigeons:

In addition to preparing the cage for pigeons, their placement is crucial. Before selecting a location, ensure that your birds are secure from outside elements and predators. Moreover, the environment must be sanitized and disinfected to eliminate impurities and possible pathogens.

To ensure the well-being of pigeons, it is recommended to maintain a temperature range of 22-25 ºC (71-77 º F) during the day and 16-20 ºC (60-68 º F) at night. In colder weather, heaters may be necessary to protect the birds.

4. Caring for pet pigeon hygiene:

When caring for a pet pigeon, maintaining hygiene is crucial to ensuring the health of both the bird and the caretaker. Pigeons should not come in direct contact with their droppings, so it is important to regularly clean their cage and accessories. This includes the tray, drinker, and feeder, which should be washed at least once per day to avoid the accumulation of droppings or food remains.

Furthermore, it is important not to leave excess food available in the cage, as it can easily become contaminated and lead to health risks for the pigeon. It is recommended that caretakers sanitize the cage and all objects and accessories inside it 2-3 times per week.

5. Pet pigeon feeding and diet:

To ensure that your pet pigeon grows and maintains good health, you must provide them with complete and balanced nutrition. Feeding is not only important for their physical growth and development but also contributes significantly to their immune system and cognitive abilities.

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In their natural habitat, pigeons consume a varied diet with grains and seeds forming the majority of their food. This includes a wide range of foods such as corn, wheat, oats, rice, barley, lentils, sorghum, flax, sesame, carob seeds, broad beans, millet, peas, and sunflower seeds.

When keeping a pigeon as a pet, they must receive proper nutrition. The pigeon-specific feed can be purchased at bird stores or online, providing the necessary balance of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, and vitamins.

While commercial feed is essential, it is equally crucial that we supplement our pet pigeons’ diet with fresh and natural foods. Sprouts, grains, vegetables, and fruits can be added to their diet 2-3 times per week. Cooked eggs or lactose-free yogurt can also be included once or twice a week to supply the required lean proteins.

To ensure that our pet pigeon’s mineral requirements are met, we can crush clean eggshells and mix them into their food every week. During the molting season, wheat germ oil is recommended as a supplement. However, it is crucial to consult a veterinarian before administering it.

Before offering vitamin and mineral supplements, professional guidance should be sought. It’s vital to ensure that our pet pigeons receive a balanced diet that caters to their nutritional requirements while maintaining their growth, good health, and well-being.

6. Forbidden foods for pigeons:

Pigeons, known for their adaptable nature, can eat a wide variety of foods — but not all foods are suitable for their consumption. An unbalanced diet containing toxic foods can pose a host of health risks, including digestive issues and death. Therefore, it is vital to understand which foods are forbidden for pigeons.

Processed, fried, or artificially flavored human food should not be given to pigeons. They are often unhealthy, high in salt, and can cause digestive problems. Chocolate and chocolate drinks are another no-go because they contain caffeine and theobromine which are toxic to pigeons. Sugary and carbonated drinks can cause digestive issues and should be avoided.

Fruits like avocado, apple, and pear seeds are strictly forbidden as they contain trace amounts of cyanide, which is poisonous to pigeons. Onion, garlic, leek, and their cousins also fall under totally forbidden foods as they are detrimental to pigeons’ red blood cells.

Similarly, salt, sugar, and artificial sweeteners are not safe for pigeons to consume. These can lead to dehydration and digestive issues. Caffeine-containing drinks such as coffee and other beverages are harmful to pigeons and therefore should be avoided.

Feeding human treats, such as candy, chewing gum, or cookies, to pigeons is also a bad idea due to the presence of artificial sweeteners, colors, and preservatives that can cause digestive problems. Therefore, it is essential to avoid or limit these foods to give the best care to your pigeons.

7. Physical and mental stimulation for pet pigeons:

Pet pigeons are social creatures that enjoy interacting with people and other birds. However, they are also independent animals that need an enriched environment to stimulate their physical and mental well-being. A sedentary and boring life can lead to physical and mental health issues for your pet pigeon.

To ensure your pet pigeon’s physical and mental well-being, it is crucial to provide an enriched environment. An enriched environment could include perching, climbing, and flying opportunities. You could also provide toys and foraging opportunities that stimulate pigeons’ natural behaviors and engage their senses. Keepers can use positive reinforcement to train their pet pigeons to engage in enriching activities.

Training your pet pigeon to return to their loft or cage is essential to ensure they do not fly away. Many keepers release their pigeons before feeding them, so they can more easily attract them by offering their food. A trained pigeon fancier could help with the training process and ensure the pet pigeon’s safe return.

Preventive medicine for pet pigeons

As a responsible pet pigeon owner, it’s crucial to prioritize the overall health and well-being of your fowl friend. Apart from providing nutritious food, fresh water, and an enriched environment, preventive medicine plays a significant role in ensuring that your pet pigeon stays healthy and free from diseases.

To begin, it’s crucial to schedule regular preventive visits to a veterinarian at least every six months. During these visits, the veterinarian will carry out thorough examinations and tests to check for any underlying health issues. It’s crucial to identify health problems early on as this can help prevent further complications.

In addition to preventive visits, you should also vaccinate your pet pigeon against the most common diseases in domestic birds. By vaccinating them, you can reduce the risk of diseases and ensure that your pet pigeon is healthy and happy. Be sure to check with a veterinarian which vaccinations your pet pigeon needs and when they should be administered.

Pet pigeons and diseases:

Pet pigeons are subject to common and persistent misconceptions regarding their nature. One of the most significant falsehoods is that these birds are inherently dirty and carry various diseases infectious to humans. Pigeons can indeed harbor harmful microorganisms, but this is also valid for any other companion animal. Proper hygiene, nutrition, and deworming are crucial for keeping pigeons healthy and safe as pets.

In the case of pet pigeons, providing a clean, secure environment, a fresh, well-balanced diet, and timely preventive medicine is of utmost importance. Birds kept in these conditions cannot pose any risks to humans. It is crucial to be responsible owners and remain dedicated to the welfare and health of our pets.

Feral pigeons live in unsanitary conditions and feed on human waste. This makes them vulnerable to bacteria, parasites, and pathogens. It’s not recommended to take stray or wild pigeons into our homes. Injured or distressed birds should be taken to a vet or local animal rescue for assistance. This makes their bodies susceptible to the spread of bacteria, parasites, and other pathogens. Therefore, it is highly advised not to take stray or wild pigeons into our homes. Injured or distressed birds should be taken to a vet or a local animal rescue for help.

The behavior of pigeons as pets

Pigeons are often overlooked as potential pets, but they are social animals with plenty of intelligence and a good disposition toward training. However, it is important to note that they require a degree of freedom to fly and explore to remain healthy. Therefore, it is essential to provide them with living conditions that allow for easy flight and freedom.

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Pigeon fancying is a well-established sport and art of rearing these birds, which requires dedication, patience, time, money, and space to achieve successful pigeon farming. Pigeon fancying has had somewhat of a renaissance in the United States, despite a serious decline in popularity in the 20th century.

To prevent inappropriate behavior in pigeons, it is crucial to provide them with optimal nutrition, preventive medicine, an environment conducive to their development, and adequate physical and mental stimulation. Their behavior will depend largely on their environment and the education provided by their keepers. Therefore, early education by an experienced bird training expert is essential for building a calm and balanced pigeon.

It is possible to avoid the aggressive nature that some people associate with pigeons. By paying attention to the pigeon’s needs and ensuring that they are well-cared for, we can have a balanced and calm pigeon in our homes. A trained pigeon can make an excellent and rewarding pet.

How to Start Pigeon Keeping?

Pigeons, known for their social nature, should be kept in pairs. However, if you choose to keep a single pigeon, it requires significant time and attention to maintain its mental and physical well-being.

Deciding whether to keep pigeons indoors or outdoors depends on where they came from initially. Rescued pigeons should stay outdoors for the first few weeks. In the case of a purchased pigeon, a few birds can live in a spacious indoor cage, while more than 2-3 require an outdoor coop. Remember to provide an easy-to-clean and appropriate cage size where the birds can move around freely.

During the colder months, bring the pigeons inside or provide them with heat sources outside. Additionally, permit the pigeons to exercise regularly by letting them walk or fly around outside of their cages. But don’t be anxious about your pets’ escape plans because they will always return when there is a constant water and food supply.

The activity of keeping pigeons.

Keeping pigeons requires proper care and attention to ensure their health and safety. Whether you’re caring for homing, racing, or pet pigeons, it’s essential to provide a clean and secure environment. Pigeons are vulnerable to predators, which can include neighborhood wildlife or pets such as cats and dogs. Therefore, it’s important to make sure they are protected at all times.

To ensure good health, pigeons should be given a nutritious and well-balanced diet. A diet consisting of various seeds and grains is recommended, along with some fresh fruits and vegetables. Seed-only diets can lead to calcium deficiency in pigeons, so it’s necessary to supplement their diet with calcium to prevent this from happening.

Providing fresh and clean water is also crucial in caring for pigeons. Dirty water can cause serious health problems. Pigeons need access to water daily, and it should be changed frequently to avoid the buildup of bacteria and other harmful elements.

For those who keep outdoor pigeon coops, it’s recommended to provide shade during hot weather to protect them from direct sunlight. In addition, pigeons need places to perch and roost, so a birdcage or cardboard box can be used for these purposes.

1. Pigeon Housing:

If you are considering pigeon keeping, proper housing is essential to ensure the health and happiness of your birds. Indoor pigeon keeping is an option for those who have up to two birds. Keep the cage big enough, preferably 2 feet high by 2 feet wide and 2 feet long, or larger. Choose a location out of direct sunlight and away from drafts, cats, and dogs. Clean the cage daily and regularly spray Viraclen for sanitation.

For outdoor pigeon keeping, a coop or loft is necessary, a great option for homing or racing pigeons. Position the coop out of direct sunlight and away from trees or buildings to keep it dry, which is essential for a pigeon’s well-being. Provide plenty of strong perches and avoid overcrowding. A shallow bowl of water should be present in the coop a few times a week for pigeons to bathe. Remember to keep your coop clean and hygienic to prevent illness.

2. Feeding Pigeons:

Proper pigeon care goes beyond providing a home. Your pigeon’s diet plays an essential part in keeping them healthy. Feeding pellets with a selection of cleaned and chopped fresh vegetables and fruits daily can prevent calcium deficiency that can occur with seed-only diets. Apples, pears, cantaloupe, kale, spinach, blueberries, broccoli, carrots, mashed eggs, and cooked rice provide suitable nutrition. Additionally, serving your bird’s mealworms as a special treat can help supplement their feeding routine.

Fresh and clean water is fundamental for the well-being of every animal, and pigeons are no different. Pigeons require water with Aquacure water sanitizer mixed in, and the water must be fresh and clean. Daily cleaning of your bird’s food and water containers is essential, and after cleaning, using Viraclean mixed water to disinfect is recommended.

If you have homing or racing pigeons, add supplements to their food. Grit and/or oyster shells are necessary and help supply the extra calcium your pigeons need. Electrolyte supplements can also be added to their diet if they look exhausted. If you are keeping indoor doves or pigeons as pets or have fancy and fantail pigeons, calcium supplements, and amino acids are essential. These supplements help keep your pet pigeons healthy, and ensure they don’t suffer from any mineral deficiencies.

3. Baby Pigeon Caring:

Raising a baby pigeon requires proper care and attention to ensure that it reaches adulthood in good health. Pigeon hens usually take care of their offspring, but in case they cannot, it is important to know about hand-feeding and providing the right type of food for the baby bird.

To hand-feed a young pigeon, a suitable pigeon milk recipe is essential. A veterinarian can guide you in selecting the best commercial baby bird formula, which should be blended into a liquid state for newly hatched chicks.

When using a syringe to feed the baby pigeon, hold them carefully, and make sure that the tip goes all the way down into the crop. For lubrication, a bit of petroleum jelly on the tip can aid in the process.

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Feeding frequency varies depending on the bird’s age, with a liquid mixture being fed two or three times a day until the baby pigeon is about 5 days old. As they grow, you can switch to larger feeding syringes and begin to include small numbers of seeds in their cage around 3 weeks old.

Teach the baby pigeon to drink water by dipping its beak into a small dish of fresh water. Wean the bird by leaving appropriate food out for them and feeding them only once a day until they are eating and drinking heartily.

To ensure they receive the proper nutrients, you should consider feeding the baby pigeon multi-vitamins from the age of 2 weeks. Pigeons typically fledge around 4 to 6 weeks of age, at which point they can consume adult feed.

4. Healthcare of Pigeons:

The primary focus of maintaining the health of domesticated and racing pigeons is to prevent illnesses from occurring in the first place. Sick pigeons cannot produce healthy offspring and can spread diseases to other lofts, which makes it everyone’s responsibility to keep our pigeons healthy.

Since pigeons come into contact with birds from other lofts, extra hygiene measures must be followed to avoid contamination. Proper housing in a loft should be prioritized, and it must remain dry at all times to prevent the dust and dampness that can cause disease.

Ventilation is a crucial factor in maintaining the loft’s temperature at different weather conditions to prevent the development of bacterial and fungal infections. Using adjustable louvers is an excellent way to manipulate the airflow inside the loft and retain the ideal temperature.

Apart from maintaining the loft’s hygiene, regular cleaning, and dusting are essential to prevent disease vectors. Furthermore, the loft should be sprayed with Viraclean, and its pots cleaned with it to prevent bacterial contamination.

Recognizing the symptoms of diseases in pigeons is equally important, and it is critical to contact a veterinarian if you observe any signs of illness. Vaccines also provide preventive measures against common diseases, making it a wise strategy to safeguard the pigeons’ health. By applying these measures, your pigeons can remain healthy, thereby reducing the need for medical treatments.

Discipline Your Pigeons:

Disciplining pet pigeons is crucial for their overall health and well-being. To start, it is important to keep them off rooftops where they could be exposed to gutters that overflow with dirty water used by wild creatures for bathing and drinking. Certain seeds, leaves, and shrubs can also be toxic to your pet pigeons.

Training your pigeons to follow a routine with appropriate punishments for disobedience is the key to keeping them disciplined. If an undisciplined pigeon sleeps outside the loft out of sheer rebellion, it must be taught not to do so. However, do not shut it out of the loft to avoid the risk of getting sick from the cold. Instead, limit its food supply for a night, to teach the necessary lesson and encourage it to stay inside.

Commands that signal the beginning or end of a routine, such as feeding time, should be repeated regularly as pigeons respond well to routines. Reinforcing these commands with appropriate rewards, like tasty seeds or nutritious food, are also necessary to keep pigeons motivated and on track.


What diet should I feed my pet pigeon?

A healthy diet is crucial for a pet pigeon’s well-being. They require a balanced diet that provides them with the necessary nutrients, including protein, calcium, and vitamins. Seeds, grains, and vegetables are all great options for feeding your pet pigeon.
Commercial pigeon feed is also available and can be a convenient option for some pet owners. It is essential to avoid feeding your pigeon only seed diets as they are deficient in calcium and can lead to health issues.

How long do pet pigeons generally live?

Pet pigeons can live up to 10-15 years with proper care. It is essential to provide them with clean water and a nutritious diet as well as regular check-ups with a veterinarian to ensure their overall health.

How do I recognize signs of illness in my pet pigeon?

Some common signs of illness in pet pigeons include lethargy, loss of appetite, discharge from the nostrils or eyes, and difficulty breathing. It is important to consult a veterinarian if any of these signs are present, as they can be indicative of underlying health issues.

What are the general behavior characteristics of pet pigeons?

Pet pigeons are social birds that thrive on companionship. They enjoy the company of their owners and other pigeons. They also require ample space to fly and exercise to maintain their physical and mental health. It is important to provide them with a bird cage or outdoor pigeon coop that offers adequate space to move around.

How do I ensure my pet pigeon’s water and living areas are clean?

Clean water is of utmost importance for pet pigeon health. It is recommended to change their water daily and clean their water container or dish regularly to prevent the growth of bacteria. Similarly, their living areas and bird cages should be cleaned regularly with mild soap and water to maintain a healthy and hygienic living environment.

How Do You Provide Water For A Pigeon?

A person can provide water for a pigeon by filling a small bowl or dish with fresh water and setting it out where the pigeon can reach it. It is important to clean the bowl or dish regularly and to refill it with fresh water as needed.

What Kind Of Housing Do Pigeons Need?

Pigeons need housing that is safe from predators, has good ventilation, and is large enough for them to move around comfortably. A simple shed or loft can be used for housing pigeons, as long as it meets these basic requirements.


This article provides valuable information on how to care for a pigeon, covering aspects such as diet, lifespan, health concerns, behavior, and hygiene. Whether you are a pet pigeon owner, a breeder, or a racing enthusiast, this article can help you ensure your pigeons are happy, healthy, and thriving.

By following the tips and advice provided here, you can provide your feathered companions with the love, care, and attention they need to live a long and fulfilling life.

Kathy Gonzales

I'm an author of I have kept pigeons as pets for over 20 years and have written several articles. Here in this blog, I cover topics such as how to care for pigeons, what to feed them, and how to keep them healthy.